The Week in Conspiracy, 25/8/2017

The latest Week in Conspiracy is out! Read it here –

Media of UFOs, Conspiracy Theories and the New AgeBut wait! Before you go, let me tell you that my book came out in paperback this week! If you have been waiting because the hardback was too expensive, now you can get it for about £25. Get it here, or your local Amazon (not forgetting to use the Religious Studies Project affiliate link so we get some money back off The Man).

“The Hidden Hand” | Religion Compass

My article, The hidden hand: Why religious studies need to take conspiracy theories seriously, was published in Religion Compass this week, and you can read it here (if you have access). It’s an introduction to the field, and a summary of my work in this area to date.

Here’s the abstract:

What seemed like fringe concerns to most then have, with Trump’s election and Brexit and the growth of the alt-right across Europe, become of concerns of mainstream commentators. Moreover, the rise of ISIS and the increasingly overt religious language being employed in the political sphere have made the powerful combination of religion and conspiracy plain. This emerging subdiscipline cuts to the very core of some of the most pressing issues in the academic study of religion––and indeed, the social sciences more generally in this postcolonial environment. This article is intended to set out its scope and some of its future directions.

The Week in Conspiracy, 19-8-2016


Hey there! The kids are back at school, so I have time again to curate your weekly dose of conspiracism from around the web.

(Via Daniel Jolley:) The International Journal of Communication reports that people convinced by a conspiracy theory may not immediately change their mind again. Well, duh.

Recent research published in the International Journal of Communication … found that after exposure to a video promoting government conspiracy theories about the moon landing (segment taken from Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon), belief in conspiracy theories increased immediately after the exposure and two weeks later (when compared to people who had not watched the video). This provides, to my knowledge, the first empirical evidence that being exposed to conspiracy theories can change your attitudes for a prolonged (two-week) period of time.  If you are interested in reading the paper, you can access a PDF copy here.

There’s a movie about holocaust denial starring Rachel Weisz coming. I’m in.

The case of alleged abductee Stan Romanek is such a hot tangled mess I can’t even begin to describe it. As he appears in court on child pornography charges this week, go grab a beer, head over to Jack Brewer’s UFO Trail and enjoy.


The Week in Conspiracism, 30/05/2016

Bit of a backlog this week… And, yes I know that David Icke appeared on the Today Show with Andrew Neil – I’ll do a separate post about that soon…

For those interested in the American Right –

So Conspiracist Dating is now a thing. I wish I’d known about this when I wrote my paper on conspiracist economics –

There’s a positive review of Rob Brotherton’s Suspicious Minds over at the Magonia blog. It examines the psychology of conspiracy theories, and looks like being both evenhanded and readable:

He argue that what separates them from real, established conspiracies is the lack of resolution; they are ongoing mysteries. More to the point perhaps is that what they have in common is the perception that the apparent world is an illusion, a false face. Behind the quotidian events of the world there is a “hidden hand”, a secret meaning and purpose. This is clearly a secularisation of the religious beliefs that either God or the Devil is behind the randomness of the world.

And finally, Alternet catches up with classic sociology from the early 1960s –

The Week in Conspiracy Theories

Lizzard Warning
Via DGM Live

A draft of Dame Janet Smith’s report from the inquiry into Jimmy Savile and the BBC is leaked by Exaro News. This is a particularly troubling situation, because while a great deal of the conspiracist material surrounding Savile and the broader “institutional paedophilia” scare is hysterically exaggerated and speculative, and at worst – such as the case of the supposed witness “Nick” – based on what is either mental illness or outright fraud, there is plenty that is true and highly disturbing in this case.

David Icke has a new book coming out and a “world tour” later this year, so we can expect a run of new interviews across the alternative media. Here he talks to Alex Jones about “how the Public Is Programmed To Become Slaves”. I find his Infowars appearances particularly interesting because we get to see clearly how he selectively chooses his topic to suit his audience, in this case, politically right, Christian and pro-gun, in stark contrast to Icke’s own position.

Tila Tequila joins the growing flat earth revival with a wonderful Twitter rant. She demands scientific evidence! She blames the resistance to Flat Earth Theory arguments on brain damage caused by vaccines. Take that, Haterz!

On a more serious note, over at, there’s an interesting take on conspiracism’s relationship to partisan politics, reminding us that there is more than one “orthodoxy”:

How can you believe that the government would not conspire against the people, when you obviously believe to the point of constant accusation that the other party you are not in, is constantly conspiring against your party and it’s leader?

Meanwhile, Rob Brotherton contributes an excellent op-ed for the LA Times, outlining the psychological and cognitive systems and biases that mean that conspiracy theorising is perfectly normal. Still, I would have liked to have seen him twist the knife a little more by pointing out that these same systems also produce religion…

Dismissing all conspiracy theories (and theorists) as crazy is just as intellectually lazy as credulously accepting every wild allegation. The tricky part is figuring out what’s reasonable and what’s ridiculous, and we can do that only by honestly scrutinizing why we believe what we believe.

Nova Religio special issue published

2.cover-page-001Nova Religio 19.2, a special issue on “Conspiracy Theories in New and Emergent Religions” guest edited by your humble author, has just been published. It features an introduction and article by myself (Silver Bullets and Seed Banks: A Material Analysis of Conspiracist Millennialism), plus articles by Beth Singler (Big Bad Pharma: The Indigo Child Concept and Biomedical Conspiracy Theories), Kevin Whitesides (2012 Millennialism Becomes Conspiracist Teleology: Overlapping Alternatives in the Late Twentieth Century Cultic Milieu), Carole Cusack (The Messiah is a Salesman, Yet Consumerism is a Con(spiracy): The Church of the SubGenius, Work, and the Pursuit of Slack as a Spiritual Ideal) and Spencer Dew (Washitaw de Dugdahmoundyah: Counterfactual Religious Readings of the Law). I am very proud of the issue and extend my gratitude to the authors and the general editors of Nova Religio. I hope you enjoy it.

This is the abstract from my introduction, which sets up the approach of the issue:

This introduction addresses a number of approaches to the emerging field of the study of conspiracy theories and new and alternative religions. Scholars can examine how certain religious groups have been the subject of conspiracy narratives created by the wider culture, and how conspiracy narratives are mobilized within religious groups such as Aum Shinrikyo, Scientology or others. Moreover, we can fruitfully examine secular conspiracy theories through ideas typically applied to religions, such as theodicy, millenarianism, and esoteric claims to higher knowledge. Most studies assume that conspiracy theories indicate pathology—paranoia or simply stupidity. Increasingly however, scholars have begun to interpret the term “conspiracy theory” as operating polemically to stigmatize certain beliefs and ideas. The field therefore offers a microcosm of broader trends in the interplay of knowledge and power. The study of both new and emergent religions and conspiracy theories comes of age only when we cease to think of them as necessarily deviant and irrational.

More to come later this week, as I finally get my head above water with work again…

Conspiracy Theory Conference, University of Miami

I’m a bit miffed that not only was I not invited to this conference, but I didn’t even know it was happening. Maybe THEY didn’t want me to know about it… A couple of colleagues were there however, along with a few people who haven’t published on the subject at all yet.

There’s an interesting write-up by Jesse Walker over at, in which she/he echoes a couple of observations I’ve made about the field myself. The first is that most scholars have moved past the “conspiracy theory = paranoia” paradigm as per Hofstader’s 1954 The Paranoid Style of American Politics, even if the popular press have yet to catch up:

When the conference heard from Peter Knight, author of the seminal book Conspiracy Culture, he recalled that in the ’90s his circle’s “defining mission” had been to overturn the Hofstadterian tradition, with its tendency to pathologize conspiracy believers and to be alarmed at manifestations of public distrust. Listening to the interdisciplinary crowd, he felt on the one hand pleased that the field had grown so large, on the other hand alarmed at how little his group’s efforts seemed to have influenced the work being done elsewhere.

Secondly, the different approaches have different aims and (more problematically) often start with different assumptions. For example, psychological approaches often start with Hofstaderian assumptions. Walker suggests that philosophers generally fail to turn their critiques into research programs, even when the work is the most critically sound. For my money, the answer is a social epistemological approach combining philosophical insights into the construction of knowledge/s and a contextualisation of the broader cultural context from critical social theory. With this approach, the study of conspiracy theories can go beyond looking at “irrational, paranoid” Others, and instead tell us something about how competing epistemés are constructed and maintained.


Boston Marathon Conspiracy Narratives Emerge

The following does not aim to endorse or debunk any of the emerging conspiracist narratives surrounding the Boston marathon bombing. Rather, it is intended as an ad hoc reception history, an attempt to track the dissemination and development of these ideas in real-time. I may update the post as things develop, particularly if these narratives take unexpected directions.

As you will by now be aware, around 2:50 PM local time on Monday 15th April 2013, two explosive devices were detonated close to the finish line of the Boston marathon, killing 3 and injuring at least 100 more. As I write this (Wed 17th), we still know almost nothing about the perpetrators or their motivations and aims – the Huffington Post today quotes an expert as saying that it is likely the work of either domestic or foreign terrorists, which is really saying nothing at all. Mark Jurgensmeyer, a respected scholar of violence and religion, has penned a short piece for Religion Dispatches pointing out that the signs point to it being the work of right-wing Christians, and I would tend to agree with him.

Alex Jones doesn’t. Within an hour of the event, had three pieces up which point out similarities between the marathon bombing and other recent terrorist acts. In particular, one piece claims that when several witnesses asked why there were bomb-sniffing dogs on the route, they were told that a training drill was in operation. This claim is also made for 9-11 and the 7-7 bombings in London, and apparently not without some justification. But Jones’ claim that this proves it was a “false flag” (that is, an attack made against your own people but ostensibly by your enemy) is predicated upon the belief that 9-11 and 7-7 were false flag attacks.

For Jones, the motivation behind such a false flag attack is to demonise himself and other Tea Party activists, and thereby discredit their opposition to further restrictions on gun control. He points out that CNN were broadcasting an op ed stating that “Right Wing extremists” could be behind the bombs less than 2 hours after the event, and in lieu of a suspect.
Dan Bidondi, a local host for Infowars, was dispatched to the press conference, where he hijacked the Q&A by repeatedly asking if it was a false flag event, and at a second asking about the security drill:

Other now familiar tropes emerged quickly too. This video claims to show that the facebook Boston Marathon Memorial page was set up before the bombs went off – something which was also a feature of the conspiracist take on the Sandy Hook shootings.
Jones has not yet claimed that he predicted the attack. However, Cindy Jacobs, an ”Apostle” in the Pentacostal organisation the Apostolic Council of Prophetic Elders (ACPE) tweeted last week:

Cindy Jacobs ‏@cindyjacobs 9 Apr
Must take threats from North Korea seriously-possiblly April 15th. Need to pray protection for both the US and South Korea and Japan.
11:38 AM – 9 Apr 13

In the aftermath, however, and in a perfect example of what I have called “rolling prophecy”, she was now claiming that she had predicted the marathon bombing (Thanks to Bartholomew’s Notes on Religion for this):

Cindy Jacobs ‏@cindyjacobs 15 Apr
Bombings in Boston, Massachusetts on Patriots Day, April 15th. I had been warning we needed to pray about danger today. Please pray!
2:30 PM – 15 Apr 13

By the early evening, had been registered, containing a short holding message to PLEASE KEEP THE VICTIMS OF THIS EVENT AND THEIR FAMILIES IN YOUR THOUGHTS. It turns out that the registree was one of the admins of the conspiracy debunking blog, Screw Loose Change, as a preemptive strike.

A final thought: why is this an “act of terror” and not an “act of terrorISM”? Why the shift in terminology?